Public Relations: Summary

Because I detest taking notes and love blogging, I figured that posting my summary on WordPress (& adding gifs) would be a good way for me to retain the information I will need to do well in my public relations exam.

Week 1: What is PR?

Types of Persuasive PR Campaigns

  • Political (candidate/issue focused); NOT propaganda
  • Commercial (e.g. a company launches a CSR program)
  • Reputational (e.g. crisis management, corporate advertising – NOT brand/product advertising)
  • Public Awareness/Educational (e.g. drink driving campaigns, organised lobbying)
  • Social Action Campaigns (long-term rather than short-term)

Defining Public Relations

  • It’s NOT marketing

 

giphy.gif
PR IS NOT MARKETING OKAY? source
advertising v pr
Tench & Yeomans 2014
  • Public Relations: Sustained effort to maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics.
  • Primary functions: research, image making, reputation management, counselling, early warning, interpreting, communication, negotiation, informing, education, issue/crisis management
  • Situational Roles: persuader, advocate, educator, crusader, information provider, reputation manager
  • Marketing PR: one small part of PR; but it supports marketing and sales objectives rather than reputational or relationship objectives. It focuses mainly on media publicity (earned media coverage) and only uses some methods and activities of PR.

Week 2: Propaganda & Persuasion, Ethics & PR

Key Figures in PR History

  • Bernays – his ideology was that of manipulating the masses through the use of propaganda in peacetime as well as war; engineering consent
  • Lee – he pushed organisations to be truthful and to choose policies the public will support, because if an organisation acts unethically the public will find out. This is more aligned with PR today than Bernays’ theory.

Propaganda

giphy (9).gif
Propaganda has negative connotations due to its wartime use. It’s still used today to spread faith to publics using incomplete, half-true or distorted information (image)
  • Propaganda: the deliberate attempt to shape the perception of consumers.
  • techniques:
    • assertion: fact given without proof, for example in advertisements, this product is the best compared to competitors.
    • glittering generalities: the use of words linked to values, even if they’re not linked to the idea itself. For example, using words like “honour” or “freedom” demands approval from an audience, in a manipulative tone, or glamourising war.
    • lesser of two evils: presenting an idea as the least offensive option of an inevitable decision
    • pinpoint the enemy : presenting an issue as black and white, and another party as ‘wrong’ or ‘bad’.
    • false dilemma: the omission of choices presented in an argument, presented as ‘us and the enemy’ and ignoring many other factors. Highly exaggerated.
    • bandwagon: everyone else is using this organisation, so why aren’t you?
    • name calling: the unwarranted use of words which carry a negative connotation, especially against a competitor or target.
    • card-stacking: only presenting the pros to an idea, not the cons, which impedes the judgement of consumers, or an imbalance of pros and cons.
    • Testimonials: people sharing biased stories

Modern use of Propaganda

Propaganda is sometimes used in social marketing campaigns for ‘good’ purposes. It manipulates society’s beliefs and behaviour for the greater goof, for example tobacco advertisements.

Public Relations & Propaganda (source: PRIA)

  • Similarities: powerful tools of communication with potential to do ‘good’ or ‘bad’; seek to shape perception and influence public opinion; use the mass media; targeted at specific audiences; results (hopefully) in people taking action; employ ‘spin‘ (a form of propaganda where a biased interpretation or argument is the basis for influencing public opinion).
  • Differences: PR uses truth because claims can be checked. It relies on facts and sometimes emotions to spread information, whereas propaganda’s philosophy is ‘us against them’. PR involves using two-way communication to build trust between an organisation and its publics, for mutual benefit. Propaganda is one-way and seeks to eliminate dissent.

5 Conditions of Persuasion PR (not propaganda)

  1. intent (to persuade)
  2. free will (audience is free to develop their own opinion)
  3. truth (can be fact-checked)
  4. autonomy of audience (can make own decision based on their opinion)
  5. communication ethics (truth, honesty, integrity; above and beyond the law)

Public Relations v Propaganda

  • Similarities:
    • both aim to persuade society, influence policies and perceptions, to some extent
    • can use the mass media as a means to do so
giphy (1).gif
PR and propaganda can be similar, but there are several key differences (source)
  • Differences
    • PR tells the whole truth, because of fact-checking, if nothing else, whereas propaganda tells the truth in a more selective manner.
    • PR communicates between an organisation and its publics and stakeholders; propaganda has an ‘us vs them’ philosophy and presents the opposite view as the only alternative and/or the enemy.
    • PR is two-way, sustained communication; propaganda is one-way

Factors affecting Persuasion

Much of PR activity is designed to enhance the credibility of an organisation. Aristotle proclaimed that communication consists of:

  • Ethos: the character of the speaker. Do they hold authority? How do we know? For example, if a man wearing a white coat speaks, we assume he is intelligent and has authority in the area.
  • Logos: the nature of the message. What is being said? How much potential is there for feedback and interaction?
  • Pathos: the attitude of the audience. How much attitude do you have to change? This attitude may stem from the speaker’s character (ethos).

Ethical & Legal Considerations

  1. A practitioner’s obligation to the law comes before his obligations to clients or employers.
  2. Communication between a practitioner and client are considered confidential (on a general scale), but are not privileged in a court of law.
  • Legal Considerations
    • Appropriation: use of finds without permission or without disclosure (may be public funds)
    • Libel: slander/defamation on another’s reputation
    • I.P.: who owns the rights to a work?
    • Truth: false/misleading information
    • Lobbying: influencing the thinking of legislators/other officials through misleading statements, sources without permission or vested interests.
giphy (2).gif
Don’t do illegal shit okay? And be nice 🙂 (source)

TARES Test

  • Truthfulness: commitment to honesty
  • Authenticity: personal/professional integrity
  • Respect: for the audience, and the rights of all stakeholders
  • Equity: fairness rather than manipulation
  • Social Responsibility: Awareness of activity on broader society

Week 3: PR Theories

1.Why do we study theories?

  • Understand a field
  • Predict potential outcomes

2.Theories of Communication

  • Communication Model
com model.JPG
Tench & Yeomans 2014
  • Public Relations Hierarchy of Effects Model
  1. Formulating Message
  2. Disseminating Message
  3. Receiving Message
  4. Comprehending Message
  5. Change Attitude
  6. Change Behaviour
  • Situational Theory
    • Publics: people impacted by an organisation, whether they realise it or not.
      • Latent: groups which face a problem due to an organisation’s actions but are unaware of it
      • Aware: groups recognise a problem exists
      • Active: groups that organise and discuss action against a problem

3. Theories of Receiver Response

  • Social exchange theory
    • Hormans (1958): social behaviour of humans during economic transactions.
      • Social relationships involve the exchange of ‘resources’ (which are not necessarily money; they can be status, love, information, time etc.)
giphy (11).gif
How do humans behave in transactions? source
  • Social learning theory
    • We learn through copying the behaviour of others
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (EXAM QUESTION)
maslow.png
source: Boundless
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model
    • Ability & motivation to comprehend material
    • Central route: ability/motivation to understand is high, close attention paid to message content
    • Peripheral route: low ability/motivation. Receiver focuses on peripheral cues more than the actual message content.
elm.jpg
Elaboration Likelihood Model (summarised). Source: commons
  • Agenda Setting Theory
    • Media agenda
    • Policy agenda
    • Corporate agenda
    • Public agenda
      • the latter is influenced heavily by the former three

Theories of Practice

  • Four Models of PR (NOT an evolution) EXAM QUESTION
4 models of pr.JPG
Tench & Yeomans 2014
  • Systems Theory
    • We don’t live in a vacuum; organisations are dynamic, they can open and close and thus have a significant impact on all sorts of other organisations, publics and stakeholders. Interaction with publics is essential for business survival.
giphy (12).gif
An organisation communicating with its publics = relo goals ❤ ❤ (source: giphy)

Week 4: Planning, Research & Stakeholders

1.Why is planning important?

  • PR Planning
    • focuses effort
    • improves effectiveness
    • encourages forward-thinking
    • minimises mishaps
    • demonstrates value for money
  • Elements of Planning
    • research (situation analysis)
    • set aims and objectives
    • identify publics
    • messages/content
    • strategy and tactics
    • timescales and budgets (incl. budgets)
    • evaluation and review
  • Strategic PR Planning Phases (Smith 2009)
  1. Formative Research
  2. Strategy
  3. Tactics
  4. Evaluative Research

2.Formative Research

  • formative research
    • reduce uncertainties in decision-making
    • guide communication planning
    • justify choices in planning
    • open up new opportunities
    • persuade senior management to allocate resources
  • Types of Research (EXAM QUESTION)
    • formative: before and during research
    • summative (evaluative): after research
  • Analysing the situation
    • explain WHY something is happening
    • why has it happened? Why is it important?
  • External Environment
    • macro environment: organisation has no control e.g. government, technology, social trends
    • task environment: forces the organisation interacts with (and may have control over) e.g. suppliers, buyers, competitors, regulators
  • Analysing the organisation
    • internal environment: vision, mission, performance, resources
    • public perception: reputation, visibility
    • external environment: competitors, opponents, supporters
      • SWOT analysis can be used
  • Issues management index
    • map of impact v probability
index.JPG
Issues Management Index (Slowikowski 2017)

Step 1: analyse situation

Step 2: analyse organisation

3.Targeting Audiences & Stakeholders (SHORT ANSWER QUESTION)

  • Audience: receivers of messages; can be active or passive
  • Stakeholders: have an interest in organisation; may or may not be publics
  • Publics: impacted by an organisation’s activities; can be latent, aware or active

 

  • Stakeholder Mapping: examines level of interest v power of stakeholders
stakeholder mapping.JPG
Slowikowski 2017
  • Process theory dissected (EXAM QUESTION)
    • Stakeholders
      • categorise based on steps 1 and 2 of formative research
      • both internal and external audiences
    • Publics
      • determine category of public (latent, aware, active) based on awareness and involvement
    • Prioritise & Profile
      • using demographic, relationship to organisation, geographic, media use, motivation (rational or emotional?) and power

Week 5: Creativity

  • Output: measured (e.g. the reach was 1.8 million) EXAM QUESTION
  • Outcome: more general (e.g. the campaign changed the conversation about organic food) EXAM QUESTION
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Be creative. It’s lit (source)
  • Developing creative ideas
    • Creativity is about free-thinking and inspiration
    • Get a group together, allow time, get away from the office, warm up, ban negativity, say ‘what else?’
    • Campaign ideas cannot be effectively tested
  • WISERMAN
    • Wordplay
    • Impact
    • Soon
    • Extremes
    • Rest
    • Modify
    • Audience
    • Now
  • Principles of Creative Behaviour
    • Surround yourself with inspiration
    • make time
    • daydream
    • look, listen, ask questions
    • take risks
    • if something makes sense it is not a new idea (Deasley 2016)

Week 6: Media Relations & Interactive Media

Media Relations

  • What is media relations?
    • managing relationships (media as gatekeeper), i.e. press releases, press conferences, with writers, editors and producers
  • Mistakes in writing which fails to persuade
    • emphasis on company
    • all features, no benefits
    • fails to say ‘what’s in it for me?’
    • too much technical jargon
    • redundant/over-used words
    • no call to action
    • not necessarily addressing target audience
    • failure to nail down message
    • poor grammar
  • Who are the media?
    • they have a ‘news sense’; they know what appeals to their audience and how to get your message across
giphy (1).gif
the media know how to get your content to your audience (source)
  • Relationship Rules (build rapport with journalists to get media coverage)
    • send them good (newsworthy) content
    • don’t pitch ‘advertising’
    • don’t annoy them
    • know which outlets share a newsroom so you don’t call a place twice
    • popularity is based on the newsworthiness of your content
  • What journalists will NOT do:
    • publish poor grammar
    • contact you if you don’t share contact details
    • bow into incentives
    • free advertising
    • stretch deadlines for you
  • Media Relations Rules

1.Be newsworthy: Be relevant, don’t create  a wave, catch a wave. Be innovative and different. Match your story to the media outlet

2. Be relevant: Find an overlap in what you want to say and what they’re interested in (i.e. relevance)

3. Become a media know-it-all: Scope; employers desire knowledge of all forms of media

4. Be willing to flex: Influence the media agenda (the influencers), think outside the square and be different

5. Go old-school: Send gifts, form relationships over coffee or via a phone call rather than an email

6. Be tailored: Be known for the right reasons, personalised communication, have a plan, send relevant material

7. Make it easy: Give material to support media release, edited properly, photos etc.

8. Be an elephant: Build relationships with journalists, not media outlets.

Interactive Media

  • Digital media and internet access is growing exponentially esp. mobile access
  • A digital divide is thus establishing itself
  • Digital natives EXAM QUESTION
    • generation which has grown up immersed in the digital age
    • a subset of this is Gen-C; constantly connected and their social status is predominantly online-based
  • Digital immigrants EXAM QUESTION
    • generation which needed to learn about new digital technologies from the outside.
  • Digital media channels: impact half of all PR work today; this number is only going to increase. Digital media can be used across all stages of the PESO model.

PESO Model EXAM QUESTION

peso.png
The PESO model segments communication channels (source: Iterative Marketing)

 

Week 7: PR Issues & Crisis Management

Issues Management (EVOLVING)

  • Issues management
    • things happening in the macro-environment which may impact upon your industry or organisation
  • Examples of issues today
    • growing demand for aged care
    • obesity
    • world hunger
    • climate change
  • Evolutionary sequence of public policy issue
    • ‘tipping point’ occurs when an ISSUE becomes a CRISIS
  • Issue v Crisis Management
    • Crisis management: dealing with a sudden adverse event which fractures a company’s operation and poses an immediate threat to survival (e.g. pneumonia). Crisis management is reactive (after) and tactical (now).
    • Issue management: evolving public policy debate; over time this shapes the way a company is permitted to operate (e.g. cold). If unmanaged, all issues have the potential to become crises. Issue management is proactive (before) and strategic (future). “Threat” or “risk” indicate an issue.
    • Issue v Crisis examples: EXAM QUESTION
      • share market fall = crisis
      • food poisoning = crisis
      • threat of product tampering = issue
      • waste disposal of nuclear = issue
      • increase in cancer = issue
      • natural disaster = crisis
      • child labour = issue
      • endangered Barrier Reef = issue
    • Functions of issues management
      • anticipate and analyse issues
      • develop organisational position on issues
      • identify key publics whose support is needed (who are your allies?)
      • identify desired behaviour of key publics (change how/what they consume)
    • Coalitions
      • stronger than allies. Power stems from here
      • 1: for profit (business, industry groups)
      • 2: not for profit (NGOs, academia, media): has the strongest voice, post digital-age
      • 3: government (regulators, ministers, legislators
    • Effect of context on issue development
      • issues management is about PACE and EXTENT of change than the FACT of change.
      • context explains why issues have impact.

Crisis Management (SUDDEN)

  • a crisis is bigger than a problem; a major occurrence with a POTENTIALLY negative outcome. It disrupts normal business and can threaten the existence of an organisation.
  • 2 forms
    • 1: cobra; ‘sudden’ crisis
    • 2: python; ‘slow-burning’ crisis
  • 8 Types of crisis EXAM QUESTION
    • 1. natural disaster
    • 2. technological (e.g. car design)
    • 3. confrontation
    • 4. malevolence (e.g. product tampering)
    • 5. skewed management values (e.g. sexual favours for promotion at work)
    • 6. deception
    • 7. management misconduct
    • 8. business & economic (e.g. 2008 GFC)
  • Where do crises come from?
    • 50% come from products being ingested
    • disclosure of confidential records (through poor disposal or theft)
    • around 25% are committed by dissatisfied employees.
  • What are the costs of a crisis? EXAM QUESTION
    • financial
    • management distraction
    • employee distraction/concern for job
    • political backlash
    • legal actions
    • customer reactions (i.e. loss in market share)
    • market confidence and reputation
  • Crisis management is reactive, but planning strategic activity is still important; PR team should be ready to act if a crisis occurs
  • Crisis communication process (good communication is essential in all steps)
    • 1. detection
    • 2. prevention/preparation
    • 3. containment
    • 4. recovery
    • 5. learning (ensure crisis will not be repeated)

Week 8: Consumer Public Relations

Consumer PR

  • Consumer PR
    • change and develop attitudes and behaviours of consumers
    • creates a favourable sales environment
    • directed at conscious and subconscious consumer levels
    • steps to increase connections with customers (visibility, engagement)
    • connecting with third parties to back up the brand (paid = sponsorship, unpaid = blogger etc.)
  • Key challenges of consumer PR
    • a good PR campaign cannot overcome a bad product
    • consumer and the media can see through vague or misleading claims

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)

  • Public relations and advertising intersect  some areas, including corporate advertising and publicity.
    • corporate advertising = building up a brand rather than a product
  • Marketing communications toolbox
    • advertising
    • direct response
    • instore & POS
    • sponsorship & events
    • sales promotion (short term)
    • online/digital
    • personal selling

Sponsorship

giphy-downsized-large.gif
Sponsorship is used to build relationships in PR (source)
  • marketing/communications/PR activity; financial or in-kind (provision of non-monetary resources – very common) support
  • used to build relationships e.g. McDonald’s and Little Athletics
  • what is a sponsor?
    • person who vouches/is responsible for something
    • person/entity who finances media time
    • person who makes a pledge on behalf of an individual
  • reasons for sponsoring
    • support products and services
    • build media interest
    • reinforce corporate identity
    • goodwill
    • staff engagement
    • lobbying
  • Features of sponsorship
    • passion marketing
      • added value, memorable
      • power of association
    • image transfer potential
      • positive connotation of sponsorship
    • integrative communication
      • condensed strategic window, rather than a wide audience like marketing uses

Week 9: CSR & Employee Engagement

giphy (2).gif
Businesses must consider CSR in their daily practice (source)

Corporate Social Responsibility

  • CSR defined
    • a genuine attempt to build meaningful relationships. To be effective, this must be a part of everyday business, engage all stakeholders, make socially responsible decisions, be ethical and obey the law.
  • Why is CSR gaining attention?
    • Government failure (lack of funding)
    • rising community expectation of business
    • globalisation
    • information proliferation
    • environmental awareness
  • Impact of a business on the environment
    • 1. basic (expected; e.g. tax, obey the law)
    • 2. organisational (e.g. minimise negative affects)
    • 3. societal (responsible for a healthy society, e.g. remove social problems)
  • Why practice CSR?
    • it’s expected
    • improve stakeholder relationships
    • attract investors
    • it’s efficient
    • company of choice for employees
    • improved employee commitment
    • high productivity
    • customer loyalty
    • long-term profitability
    • economic foundation for community
    • reduce risk
  • CSR Pyramid
csr.jpg
source: Pink Golfer
  • CSR & Public Relations
    • CSR = a dimension of PR
    • 4 areas:
      • 1. environment
      • 2. workplace
      • 3. community
      • 4. marketplace
    • different ‘domains’
      • community support
      • diversity
      • employee support
      • environment
      • product
      • non-domestic operations
  • CSR Initiatives EXAM QUESTION
    • cause promotion: provides funds/in kind resources to raise awareness of an issue
    • cause-related marketing: links monetary or in kind donations to the sales of a product
    • social marketing (behaviour change): uses business resources to develop a behaviour change campaign
    • philanthropy (don’t expect things in return): corporation makes direct contribution to a charity
    • employee engagement: support and encourage employees to partake in charity work
    • socially responsible business practices: a business adopts these in their day to day operations

Community Relations

  • Community relations defined: planned, active and continued participation in the community. There is a link between community relations, reputation and financial performance.
  • 3 aspects of community relations
    • 1. organisations can operate with the support of the community
    • 2. CSR programs benefit wider community
    • 3. direct participation
  • Elements of a successful community involvement plan
    • company
    • employees
    • community
  • Examples of community relations
    • sponsorship
    • donations
    • awards
    • volunteering/equipment loans
    • training/seminars

Internal Audiences/Employee Engagement

  • formal and informal communication are both crucial in an organisation
  • goals of employee communication
    • motivate employees
    • encourage high performance
    • limit misunderstandings
    • align staff to the organisation’s goals
    • build trust
    • provide important information
  • Techniques to encourage employee engagement
    • preferential treatment
    • reward program
    • awards/presentations
    • employee volunteering
    • community membership

Week 10: B2B PR; Public Affairs/Lobbying

B2B PR

  • PR is targeted at intermediaries along the supply chain (i.e. another business) rather than the end of it.
  • Core principles of B2B PR
    • detailed understanding of marketplace
    • application of products and services
    • dynamics of buying process
    • must understand characteristics of marketplace
      • small number of buying publics
      • specific application/end use of products
      • defined product/service in terms of technical specifications and legal/trading restrictions
  • Traditional PR methods
    • trade journal: trade journalists have a thorough understanding of trade in their area.
      • Managers/professionals tend to read titles relevant to their trade
      • loyalty of trade press is an asset to B2B cycle
    • advertorials
      • frequently used in B2B PR
      • do not have the credibility of news material
    • direct response
      • sales rep
      • online
    • websites
      • digital and interactive media
    • events
      • interactive media, real-time
    • sales promotion
      • vouchers, short term incentives etc.
giphy (4).gif
source

Public Affairs

  • Public affairs defined: seeks to influence public policy via lobbying and the media.
  • Lobbying is one key component of public affairs
    • aims to defeat, amend or oppose legislation
  • communication is the key intermediary between business and government
  • Scope of public affairs
    • matters of public policy; including
      • businesses talking to the government about brexit or food labelling
      • consumer-facing companies e.g. The Body Shop try to stop cosmetic testing on animals.

Week 11: Corporate Reputation & Identity, Corporate Communication

Corporate PR

  • PR is mostly a corporate activity; PR manager answers to senior executive rather than the head of a product division
  • Most PR is not marketing PR

Corporate Identity

giphy (5).gif
Corporate identity is vital in today’s market (source)
  • who are we?
  • what are we?
  • how does an organisation present itself?
  • Comparing identity and image
    • identity: sum of all the ways a company chooses to identify itself
    • image: what the company looks like NOW.
  • Visual identity
    • corporate name
    • logo
    • colour palette
    • font type
    • slogan or tagline
  • Aligning corporate identity with visual/graphic design
    • catalyst for change
    • important communication vehicle
    • fashionable
  • Dimensions of corporate identity
    • structure
    • strategy
    • culture
    • behaviour
    • design
    • communication
    • industry identity
  • Comparing image & reputation
    • image: NOW, multiple facets
    • reputation: over time
      • the biggest determinant of reputation is BEHAVIOUR
  • Corporate reputation
    • cannot be manufactured
    • built from interactions
    • behaviour far outweighs communication
giphy (3).gif
Behaviour is the single largest determinant of a corporation’s reputation (source)
  • Factors used to manage reputation
    • innovation
    • global competitiveness
    • people management
    • long-term investment
    • social responsibility
    • product quality
    • use of assets

Corporate Communication

  • Difference between marketing and corporate communication
    • Marketing
      • targets consumer
      • developed by brand managers
      • defined channels, controlled communication
      • positions a product
    • Corporate Communication
      • targets all stakeholders
      • developed at the corporate level
      • multiple channels
      • positions an entire organisation
  • Corporate communication
    • building positive relationships and reputation; refers to communication with political, community, financial, media, competitor, suppliers and internal publics.
    • Can be internal (employees, shareholders) or external (media, government, industry).
  • Total Communications Process
    • Primary: effects of products, staff, behaviour
    • Secondary: controlled forms of communication (i.e. marketing promotions)
    • Tertiary: what others say; word of mouth, media commentary etc.

Week 12: Evaluating Public Relations

  • Why conduct evaluation?
    • answers questions about time, effort and resources
    • justifies investment
    • should be used for learning
  • Evaluation should:
    • check against objectives
    • be visible for clients
  • Types of evaluation:
    • formative
      • how activities might be improved DURING the campaign
    • summative
      • measured at the END of a campaign
  • Evaluative criteria
    • criteria (metrics): standards of measurement to assess the outcome of a program
      • awareness
      • acceptance
      • action
      • unplanned results
  • Model of evaluation
    • inputs: (formative) appropriateness of medium and message
    • outputs: (F/S) physical, easy to measure e.g. number of media impressions
    • out-take: (F/S) reactions, harder to measure e.g. increased awareness or behavioural change
    • out-come: (summative) key performance indicators, impact and effect of communication
giphy (6).gif
Evaluation is essential in Public Relations (source)
  • When to evaluate?
    • 1. Pretesting (preparation), set benchmarks
    • 2. Progress reports (implementation; WIP report), preliminary evaluation with modification if necessary)
    • 3. Final Evaluation reports (impact), summative report, impact and outcome of KPI’s.
  • Reporting to a client (summative)
    • return on objectives
    • project success
    • budget reconciliation
    • head hours
    • timeline
    • key learnings: improvements and recommendations
  • Associations set up to evaluating PR & Communications
    • AMEC: Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication
  • Barriers to evaluation
    • attitude
    • time
    • cost
    • resources
    • lack of education
    • fear of being proven wrong

References

Slowikowski, S 2017, Public Relations Concepts, MARK221 (weeks 1-13), University of Wollongong, Autumn 2017

Tench, R and Yeomans, L 2014, Exploring Public Relations, 3rd edn, Pearson, Harlow, UK

For further references, see hyperlinks 🙂

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